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A Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis. Use the mlk photo guidelines below to learn about the practice of close reading. When your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading. Close reading is deep analysis of how a literary text works; it is both a reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a refined form. Comparison Outline. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of mlk photo, many central components, including subject, form, and specific word choices. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to find in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole.
For example, if an author writes a novel in write comparison outline, the form of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series of lab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is the effect of essay, picking a word like tome instead of openoffice to write thesis, book? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lot of questions. It is when you begin to mlk photo essay answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the most of justice, your close reading work.
Close reading sometimes feels like over-analyzing, but don't worry. Close reading is a process of essay, finding as much information as you can in order form to as many questions as you can. When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you will sort through your work to openoffice to write thesis figure out what is most convincing and helpful to the argument you hope to essay make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. This guide imagines you are sitting down to read a text for the first time on of expository, your way to developing an essay argument about a text and writing a paper. To give one example of to write thesis, how to do this, we will read the poem Design by famous American poet Robert Frost and mlk photo essay, attend to four major components of literary texts: subject, form, word choice (diction), and openoffice to write, theme. Mlk Photo Essay. If you want even more information about approaching poems specifically, take a look at our guide: How to Read a Poem. As our guide to reading poetry suggests, have a pencil out when you read a text. Write Comparison Outline. Make notes in the margins, underline important words, place question marks where you are confused by something. Of course, if you are reading in mlk photo, a library book, you should keep all your notes on to write thesis, a separate piece of paper. If you are not making marks directly on, in, and beside the text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the text so you have enough context to remember what you found interesting.
I found a dimpled spider, fat and white, On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Mlk Photo. Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth Assorted characters of death and blight. Justice Essay. Mixed ready to begin the morning right, Like the essay ingredients of a witches' broth A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth, And dead wings carried like a paper kite. Comparison Essay. The wayside blue and innocent heal-all? What brought the kindred spider to that height,
Then steered the white moth thither in the night? What but design of darkness to appall? If design govern in a thing so small. The subject of a literary text is simply what the text is mlk photo, about. What is its plot? What is its most important topic? What image does it describe? It's easy to think of write, novels and stories as having plots, but sometimes it helps to think of poetry as having a kind of plot as well. When you examine the subject of a text, you want to develop some preliminary ideas about the text and make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper. In Design, the speaker describes a scene: a white spider holding a moth on a white flower.
The flower is a heal-all, the blooms of which are usually violet-blue. This heal-all is mlk photo essay, unusual. The speaker then poses a series of questions, asking why this heal-all is white instead of blue and how the spider and moth found this particular flower. How did this situation arise? The speaker's questions seem simple, but they are actually fairly nuanced. We can use them as a guide for our own as we go forward with our close reading.
Furthering the speaker's simple how did this happen, we might ask, is the scene in this poem a manufactured situation? The white moth and white spider each use the atypical white flower as camouflage in search of write comparison essay outline, sanctuary and supper respectively. Did these flora and fauna come together for mlk photo, a purpose? Does the speaker have a stance about whether there is a purpose behind the scene? If so, what is it? How will other elements of the text relate to the unpleasantness and openoffice to write thesis, uncertainty in mlk photo, our first look at the poem's subject? After thinking about local questions, we have to zoom out.
Ultimately, what is of expository, this text about? Form is how a text is put together. When you look at a text, observe how the author has arranged it. If it is a novel, is it written in the first person? How is the mlk photo essay novel divided?
If it is a short story, why did the author choose to write short-form fiction instead of a novel or novella? Examining the form of thesis, a text can help you develop a starting set of questions in your reading, which then may guide further questions stemming from even closer attention to mlk photo the specific words the author chooses. A little background research on form and what different forms can mean makes it easier to figure out why and rise of christianity, how the author's choices are important. Most poems follow rules or principles of form; even free verse poems are marked by the author's choices in line breaks, rhythm, and rhymeeven if none of these exists, which is a notable choice in itself. Here's an example of thinking through these elements in Design. In Design, Frost chooses an Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet form: fourteen lines in iambic pentameter consisting of an octave (a stanza of eight lines) and a sestet (a stanza of six lines). We will focus on rhyme scheme and stanza structure rather than meter for the purposes of this guide. A typical Italian sonnet has a specific rhyme scheme for the octave: a b b a a b b a. There's more variation in the sestet rhymes, but one of the mlk photo more common schemes is. Conventionally, the thesis octave introduces a problem or question which the sestet then resolves.
The point at which the sonnet goes from the problem/question to the resolution is called the mlk photo essay volta , or turn. (Note that we are speaking only in openoffice to write thesis, generalities here; there is a great deal of variation.) Frost uses the usual octave scheme with -ite/-ight (a) and oth (b) sounds: white, moth, cloth, blight, right, broth, froth, kite. However, his sestet follows an unusual scheme with -ite/-ight and all sounds: Now, we have a few questions with which we can start: Why use an essay Italian sonnet? Why use an essay unusual scheme in mlk photo, the sestet? What problem/question and resolution (if any) does Frost offer? What is the in religion volta in essay, this poem? In other words, what is the point? Italian sonnets have a long tradition; many careful readers recognize the of christianity research form and know what to mlk photo essay expect from his octave, volta , and sestet. Frost seems to do something fairly standard in write essay outline, the octave in presenting a situation; however, the turn Frost makes is not to resolution, but to questions and uncertainty.
A white spider sitting on a white flower has killed a white moth. How did these elements come together? Was the moth's death random or by design? Is one worse than the other? We can guess right away that Frost's disruption of the usual purpose of the sestet has something to mlk photo do with his disruption of its rhyme scheme.
Looking even more closely at the text will help us refine our observations and guesses. Looking at the word choice of a text helps us dig in thesis, ever more deeply. If you are reading something longer, are there certain words that come up again and again? Are there words that stand out? While you are going through this process, it is best for you to assume that every word is essay, importantagain, you can decide whether something is justice, really important later. Even when you read prose, our guide for reading poetry offers good advice: read with a pencil and mlk photo, make notes.
Mark the words that stand out, and perhaps write the questions you have in the margins or on a separate piece of paper. If you have ideas that may possibly answer your questions, write those down, too. Let's take a look at rise of christianity research paper, the first line of Design: I found a dimpled spider, fat and white. The poem starts with something unpleasant: a spider. Then, as we look more closely at the adjectives describing the spider, we may see connotations of something that sounds unhealthy or unnatural.
When we imagine spiders, we do not generally picture them dimpled and white; it is an uncommon and mlk photo essay, decidedly creepy image. There is introduction essay, dissonance between the spider and its descriptors, i.e., what is wrong with this picture? Already we have a question: what is going on with this spider? We should look for additional clues further on in the text. The next two lines develop the image of the unusual, unpleasant-sounding spider: On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth Now we have a white flower (a heal-all, which usually has a violet-blue flower) and a white moth in addition to our white spider. Heal-alls have medicinal properties, as their name suggests, but this one seems to mlk photo have a genetic mutationperhaps like the rise of christianity research spider? Does the mutation that changes the heal-all's color also change its beneficial propertiescould it be poisonous rather than curative? A white moth doesn't seem remarkable, but it is Like a white piece of mlk photo, rigid satin cloth, or like manmade fabric that is artificially rigid rather than smooth and flowing like we imagine satin to be. Thesis On Juvenile Justice. We might think for a moment of a shroud or the lining of a coffin, but even that is awry, for neither should be stiff with death.
The first three lines of the poem's octave introduce unpleasant natural images of death and blight (as the speaker puts it in line four). The flower and moth disrupt expectations: the heal-all is white instead of mlk photo, blue and innocent, and the moth is reduced to rigid satin cloth or dead wings carried like a paper kite. We might expect a spider to be unpleasant and rise of christianity research, deadly; the poem's spider also has an unusual and unhealthy appearance. The focus on whiteness in essay, these lines has more to introduction essay do with death than puritycan we understand that whiteness as being corpse-like rather than virtuous? Well before the volta , Frost makes a turn away from nature as a retreat and haven; instead, he unearths its inherent dangers, making nature menacing. From three lines alone, we have a number of questions: Will whiteness play a role in essay, the rest of the poem? How does designan arrangement of these circumstancesfit with a scene of death? What other juxtapositions might we encounter?
These disruptions and write comparison essay, dissonances recollect Frost's alteration to the standard Italian sonnet form: finding the ways and places in which form and word choice go together will help us begin to unravel some larger concepts the poem itself addresses. Put simply, themes are major ideas in a text. Mlk Photo Essay. Many texts, especially longer forms like novels and plays, have multiple themes. That's good news when you are close reading because it means there are many different ways you can think through the questions you develop. So far in our reading of to write, Design, our questions revolve around disruption: disruption of mlk photo essay, form, disruption of expectations in the description of certain images. Discovering a concept or idea that links multiple questions or observations you have made is the beginning of a discovery of theme. What is to write, happening with disruption in Design? What point is Frost making?
Observations about other elements in the text help you address the idea of mlk photo essay, disruption in essay, more depth. Here is where we look back at the work we have already done: What is the text about? What is mlk photo, notable about the in religion form, and how does it support or undermine what the mlk photo words say? Does the specific language of the text highlight, or redirect, certain ideas? In this example, we are looking to determine what kind(s) of disruption the poem contains or describes. Rather than disruption, we want to see what kind of disruption, or whether indeed Frost uses disruptions in form and language to communicate something opposite: design. After you make notes, formulate questions, and introduction essay, set tentative hypotheses, you must analyze the mlk photo essay subject of your close reading.
Literary analysis is another process of reading (and writing!) that allows you to make a claim about the text. It is comparison outline, also the point at which you turn a critical eye to your earlier questions and essay, observations to find the most compelling points and discard the ones that are a stretch or are fascinating but have no clear connection to the text as a whole. Study. (We recommend a separate document for recording the brilliant ideas that don't quite fit this time around.) Here follows an excerpt from a brief analysis of essay, Design based on the close reading above. This example focuses on some lines in great detail in order to unpack the meaning and significance of the poem's language. By commenting on in religion study, the different elements of mlk photo, close reading we have discussed, it takes the results of research, our close reading to offer one particular way into the text. (In case you were thinking about using this sample as your own, be warned: it has no thesis and it is easily discoverable on the web. Plus it doesn't have a title.) Frost's speaker brews unlikely associations in the first stanza of the poem. The Assorted characters of death and blight / Mixed ready to begin the morning right make of the grotesque scene an equally grotesque mockery of a breakfast cereal (45). These lines are almost singsong in meter and mlk photo, it is easy to write comparison outline imagine them set to a radio jingle. A pun on right/rite slides the characters of death and blight into their expected concoction: a witches' broth (6). Mlk Photo Essay. These juxtapositionsa healthy breakfast that is openoffice thesis, also a potion for dark magicare borne out when our fat and essay, white spider becomes a snow-dropan early spring flower associated with renewaland the introduction moth as dead wings carried like a paper kite (1, 7, 8).
Like the mutant heal-all that hosts the essay moth's death, the spider becomes a deadly flower; the on juvenile justice harmless moth becomes a child's toy, but as dead wings, more like a puppet made of mlk photo, a skull. The volta offers no resolution for our unsettled expectations. Having observed the scene and detailed its elements in of expository essay, all their unpleasantness, the speaker turns to questions rather than answers. How did The wayside blue and innocent heal-all end up white and bleached like a bone (10)? How did its kindred spider find the white flower, which was its perfect hiding place (11)?
Was the moth, then, also searching for camouflage, only to meet its end? Using another question as a disguise, the speaker offers a hypothesis: What but design of darkness to appall? (13). Essay. This question sounds rhetorical, as though the only reason for such an unlikely combination of flora and fauna is some design of darkness. Some force, the openoffice speaker suggests, assembled the white spider, flower, and moth to snuff out the mlk photo moth's life. Openoffice To Write Thesis. Such a design appalls, or horrifies. We might also consider the speaker asking what other force but dark design could use something as simple as appalling in its other sense (making pale or white) to effect death. However, the mlk photo poem does not close with a question, but with a statement. The speaker's If design govern in a thing so small establishes a condition for the octave's questions after the fact (14). There is rise of christianity research paper, no point in considering the dark design that brought together assorted characters of death and blight if such an event is too minor, too physically small to be the work of some force unknown.
Ending on an if clause has the essay effect of rendering the poem still more uncertain in its conclusions: not only are we faced with unanswered questions, we are now not even sure those questions are valid in openoffice to write, the first place. Behind the speaker and the disturbing scene, we have Frost and his defiance of our expectations for a Petrarchan sonnet. Like whatever designer may have altered the flower and attracted the spider to mlk photo essay kill the moth, the poet built his poem wrong with a purpose in mind. Design surely governs in a poem, however small; does Frost also have a dark design? Can we compare a scene in nature to a carefully constructed sonnet? Your goal in a paper about rise of christianity research literature is to communicate your best and most interesting ideas to your reader. Depending on essay, the type of paper you have been assigned, your ideas may need to be organized in service of a thesis to which everything should link back. It is best to ask your instructor about the expectations for justice essay, your paper. Knowing how to organize these papers can be tricky, in mlk photo essay, part because there is essay, no single right answeronly more and less effective answers. You may decide to organize your paper thematically, or by tackling each idea sequentially; you may choose to order your ideas by their importance to your argument or to the poem. If you are comparing and contrasting two texts, you might work thematically or by addressing first one text and then the mlk photo other.
One way to approach a text may be to start with the beginning of the novel, story, play, or poem, and work your way toward its end. Research Paper. For example, here is the rough structure of the example above: The author of the sample decided to use the poem itself as an organizational guide, at least for this part of the analysis. A paragraph about the octave. A paragraph about the volta . A paragraph about the penultimate line (13). A paragraph about the final line (14). A paragraph addressing form that suggests a transition to the next section of the paper. You will have to decide for yourself the best way to communicate your ideas to your reader. Is it easier to follow your points when you write about mlk photo each part of the text in detail before moving on?
Or is your work clearer when you work through each big ideathe significance of justice introduction, whiteness, the effect of an altered sonnet form, and so onsequentially? We suggest you write your paper however is easiest for you then move things around during revision if you need to. If you really want to master the essay practice of write comparison essay outline, reading and writing about literature, we recommend Sylvan Barnet and William E. Mlk Photo Essay. Cain's wonderful book, A Short Guide to Writing about Literature . Barnet and Cain offer not only definitions and descriptions of processes, but examples of explications and analyses, as well as checklists for you, the author of the criminal justice essay paper. Mlk Photo Essay. The Short Guide is certainly not the only available reference for writing about literature, but it is an excellent guide and reminder for new writers and paper, veterans alike.
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Sergey Brin Biography: Success Story of Google Co-Founder. In this success story, we are going to share Sergey Brin biography, an American computer scientist and internet entrepreneur who co-founded Google with Larry Page, which is considered one of the most profitable companies of mlk photo essay, nowadays. The distinctive personality traits of essay in religion study, Sergey Brin are perseverance, creativity, vision and emotional intelligence. Many people know that Brin immigrated to the United States from the Soviet Union yet when he was six, but not everyone is mlk photo essay, familiar with his full biography in details. We invite you to read it on Astrum People. Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin was born on August 21, 1973, in Russian Jewish family in Russia, Moscow. His father, Michael Brin, is a mathematician, now retired from Department of Mathematics, University of Maryland. His mother, Eugenia Brin, was a scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Recently, she took the role of the Director of Historical Records Task Force Chair at HIAS, an organization aimed to introduction connect Russian-Jewish and other American immigrants to essay share their life stories. While living in the Soviet Union Michael Brin regularlypursue faced hidden anti-Semitism.
Michael’s dream was to become an essay in religion, astronomer. Thus, he wanted to study physics at university but was rejected to mlk photo enter any of them. Thesis! At that time, the mlk photo, Communist Party forbade Jews to pursue higher studies in particular subjects, including physics, in order to block them access to the country’s nuclear secrets. Thus, Sergey Brin’s father decided to study mathematics and paper became a student at essay, Moscow State University, despite the fact that the entrance exams for the Jews were held in thesis on juvenile justice, the separate rooms, notoriously called “gas chambers”. In 1970, he graduated with honors and became an economist at mlk photo essay, GOSPLAN, the State Planning Committee of on juvenile, USSR. Later, he continued to study mathematics on his own and with the help of his advisers defended his thesis to obtain a Doctorate degree at The University of Kharkiv. Sergey’s mother, Eugenia, also attended Moscow State University. She majored in mathematics and mechanics and worked in a research laboratory at the Soviet Oil and Gas Institute.
They were living in a 350 square feet three-room apartment in central Moscow. Sergey Brin Childhood. In the late 1970s, Jewish families started to migrate from the Soviet Union. Mlk Photo Essay! Although the Brin family enjoyed their life in Moscow, Michael knew that eventually Sergey Brin would be restricted from many activities and opportunities because of his Jewish nationality. In 1977, Michael Brin went to a mathematics conference in introduction, Warsaw, Poland. Upon his return, he announced that it was time for mlk photo the family to emigrate.
Thus, in September 1978, Michael Brin applied for their exit visa. As soon it came to Soviet Government’s notice, they fired him from his job, and, for the related reasons, his wife also had to leave her job. Next eight months until they got an exit visa, the family had to go through the very hard times. To sustain his family, Michael taught himself computer programming; he also worked as a translator of technical texts. They finally left the USSR and first arrived in Vienna, where representatives of HIAS met them. Later they moved to essay in religion study Paris. Anatole Katok, Michael’s unofficial Jewish Ph.D. advisor, met them in mlk photo essay, Paris and of expository helped him to occupy an interim research position at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques. Anatole Katok had migrated the year before with his family to Paris and looked after the Brins while they stayed there. Mlk Photo! On October 25, 1979, the comparison outline, family, which consisted of Michael, Eugenia, Sergey and Michael’s mother, finally landed at New York’s Kennedy Airport. Sergey Brin was six years old at that time.
The Brin family rented a simple, concrete blockhouse in mlk photo essay, Maryland in a lower-middle-class neighborhood. Later they bought a 1973 Ford Maverick by taking a loan of $2,000 from the Jewish community. The graduates of Soviet mathematics schools were highly valued worldwide. Therefore, it did not take much of time for the head of the family to find a teaching position at the University of write essay, Maryland in College Park, a city in Prince George’s County, Maryland. His wife became a specialist scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Mlk Photo! The one who suffered the most was the criminal essay introduction, grandmother – she was shocked when she had to take an exam for mlk photo essay the driver’s license to bring her grandson to school. First, Sergey attended the Mishkan Torah Hebrew School with the other Jewish kids.
He did not like to study there as he was bullied for introduction his thick Russian accent. After some time, Sergey begged his parents to transfer him to a different school. They encouraged him to mlk photo essay study the elementary school at Paint Branch Montessori School in Adelphi, Maryland. Sergey’s parents became friends with the school’s director, Patty Barshay, who later became a mentor of Sergey. Now, Sergey Brin considers that studying at that school was one of the introduction, key factors of his success. Barshay described Sergey Brin as outgoing, self-confident, and fascinated by numbers and mathematics. Sergey Brin attended Eleanor Roosevelt High School in Greenbelt, Maryland. He sometimes was getting bored, as the mlk photo, classes of mathematics seemed too simple for him. This fact is not surprising, as the young genius was getting an additional education at home. Parents not only in religion study, helped Sergey to retain the knowledge of Russian language but also encouraged his interest in mathematics and computer science. Mlk Photo Essay! In the early 1980s, the availability of personal computers was still rare.
Sergey Brin’s first computer Commodore 64 he received from his father as a present for his birthday when he turned nine years old. Criminal! Soon, Sergey surprised his schoolteachers by submitting an unusual project prepared on the computer and mlk photo printed out on the printer. After graduating from Eleanor Roosevelt High School in Greenbelt, Maryland, where he had studied for three years, Sergey Brin enrolled at the University of Maryland in 1990, at the age of 15. In 1993, at the age of write comparison essay, 19, Brin received his doubled bachelor’s degree in computer systems and mathematics with honors and earned a prestigious scholarship of National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship, which covered his following education. In 1993, Sergey Brin graduated from the University of Maryland with honors. Sergey Brin continued his education at Stanford University, which is the most prestigious high-tech university of the United States, located in mlk photo essay, California’s Silicon Valley. Some American universities allow Bachelor students to apply directly to the doctoral program and to write thesis receive a Master’s degree while studying. Thus, such universities can encourage their talented students into long-term projects so that the students may concentrate on mlk photo essay, their research. Sergey Brin liked mathematics, but he had no clue how would this passion turn out.
His list of the selected disciplines was surprising: dancing, yachting, swimming, gymnastics, etc. His father recalls that when he asked his son whether he was going to sign up for some advanced courses, Sergey replied that he had already enrolled in criminal justice essay, advanced swimming. From the beginning of studying at Stanford University, Sergey Brin demonstrated an interest in Internet technologies and search engines. He authored and co-authored a number of papers relating to the methods of information extraction from unstructured sources, and information retrieval in large collections of texts and mlk photo scientific data. Also, he developed software, which converted experimental work created using a word processor TeX, into HTML format. In 1993, Sergey Brin created a software application that would crawl Playboy’s Web site, download the latest images, and set them as a screensaver.
However, Brin was forced to remove the screensaver, after a female student complained. The crucial moment in the biography of Sergey Brin happened in March 1995 when he met Lawrence “Larry” Page at the spring meeting of the prospective Ph.D.s in Computer Science, who later became the CEO of of christianity, Google. In the summer of 1995, Sergey Brin was assigned to accompany Larry Page on campus. Initially, they were not happy with each other, and mlk photo essay they were arguing and furiously discussing any topic. Larry Page (left) and Sergey Brin (right) However, soon they discovered that both of them were extremely interested in thesis justice, the problem of extracting information from large data sets. Sergey and Larry became friends, and in January 1996, in mlk photo essay, preparation for of christianity writing doctoral theses, they began to mlk photo work together on a research project designed to improve the methods of on juvenile justice, finding information on the Internet fundamentally. They presumed that the most popular data was the essay, most useful.
Therefore, young scientists hypothesized that a search engine that analyzed the liaison between websites and ranked them according to their popularity must have been more efficient than the existing ranking methods of other search engines. The modern search engines’ ranking principles of websites depended on the frequency of the rise paper, word appearance on mlk photo essay, the page. Page and Brin were convinced that the most important ranking factor of web pages was backlinks, but not keyword stuffing. Brin and Page decided to test this idea as a part of their research project. They launched the search engine BackRub with the PageRank algorithm – it checked number and relevance of backlinks to estimate a website’s content credibility and usefulness. It was available for Stanford students only.
Young researchers required many computers to store and process big data on the Internet. It took more time than anticipated, and it cost a computer science department $20,000 to launch a crawler. In the fall of rise research paper, 1997, Larry and Sergey brainstormed a catchier name of BackRub. They turned to their mate Sean Anderson for help. Anderson suggested the mlk photo, name Googolplex , a huge number, the digit 1 followed by 10 to a 100 degrees. Sergey and rise research Larry liked the essay, name and proposed to shorten it to Googol . The word googol indicates the digit 1 followed by 100 zeros. Googol number. A nine-year-old Milton Sirotta, a nephew of the famous mathematician Edward Kasner, invented googolplex and googol numbers yet in of expository, 1920.
Anderson commented: “I typed in G-o-o-g-l-e and misspelled it on my workstation, and that was available. Larry found that acceptable, and he registered it later that evening and wrote it on the whiteboard: Google.com”. Soon, one of their office colleagues noticed that they had misspelled googol number and pointed out on it. However, the Google.com had been already registered. Initially, it has been hosted on the root domain of Stanford University at google.stanford.edu . The domain name google.com was registered on September 15, 1997. During the mlk photo, first half of 1998, the openoffice to write, Sergey and Larry were involved in the development of a new and promising search engine technology. Larry Page’s dorm room at mlk photo essay, Stanford University served as the data center while the Sergey Brin’s dorm room – the business office. Initially, Brin and Page did not want to create Google as business and considered the search engine as the basis for a scholarly research project to to write thesis obtain their Ph.D. degrees. The first Google logo and search page in mlk photo, 1997.
They noticed that Google became too popular among Stanford students, and they started thinking how to expand Google beyond the Stanford walls. First, they attempted to sell their idea to AltaVista for $1 million but Paul Flaherty, the inventor of AltaVista, rejected their proposal. Sergey and Larry also tried to sell it to Yahoo!, Excite, but things turned out a different way. After several unlucky attempts of selling it, they created a business plan and started looking for angel investors who would provide funds for an exchange of ownership portion of their company. Rise! David Cheriton, their computer science professor, introduced them Andy Bechtolsheim, who was a Vice President of Cisco Systems (later co-founder of Sun Microsystems). He was very interested in the idea and wrote out mlk photo a check for $100,000.
In the middle of 1998, Brin and Page paused their studies at Stanford University. Their parents were not pleased with this decision. On September 7, 1998, Google was incorporated as a limited liability company, Google Inc. Larry Page became CEO, and Sergey Brin became President. Their first office was a rented garage from of expository, Susan Wojcicki, a sister of Sergey Brin’s girlfriend Anne Wojcicki, which was located in Menlo Park, California. Despite, Google processed around 10,000 requests per day PC Magazine featured it on the list of Top 100 best Websites and Search Engines of 1998. Soon Craig Silverstein joined their team as the first Google’s employee.
In the following year, the company moved into the new office in Palo Alto. Page (left) and mlk photo Brin (right) in their garage-office rented from Susan Wojcicki. The number of satisfied users has been growing rapidly, and the word “Google” was popping from all over introduction the place. The company needed investments for the business expansion, but at the same time, Brin and Page did not want to lose control. The partners wanted Google to adhere its mission – “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and essay useful.” That was a starting point where they proved that they were able to find original solutions not only in thesis, the area of new technologies but also in mlk photo, running the business. In June 1999, Brin and Page managed to convince two competing venture capital firms – Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers – to fund Google and attracted investments of $25 million. To Write! According to David A. Vise, the co-author of The Google Story book, it was a classic maneuver “divide and conquer.” It allowed Brin and Page to essay prevent the possibility of a significant influence from any of the investors, despite the write outline, fact that the representatives of the two venture capital firms have entered the mlk photo essay, board of directors.
Being at Stanford Sergey and Larry co-authored a research paper The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine , which contained a prototype of a large-scale search engine, called Google. In this research paper, they wrote: “We expect that advertising funded search engines will be inherently biased towards the advertisers and away from the justice, needs of the mlk photo, consumers.” Sergey and Larry were against banner advertising – they were proud of their clean and simple design. Their main purpose was to search, not to sell. While at thesis on juvenile, the same time, other search engines were trying to sell banner adverts on their websites. By the end of 1999, Google processed approximately 7 million searches per day, and in the middle of 2000, it handled an average of 18 million searches per day. The company spent $500,000 a month in operating costs with the continuous increase. They had to figure something out and re-consider their non-advertising policy to essay keep the company afloat. To become a profitable company Sergey and Larry decided to display sponsored advertisements, but not on the homepage.
Instead, they agreed to show highlighted links separated from organic search results. In the US, advertisers spent billions of rise, dollars on outdoor advertising; however, sometimes it was not quite effective. Brin and Page offered a solution to display sponsored adverts based on the searches of users. If users searched on Google for more information about mlk photo cars, they could click on a sponsored link to learn more. Thus, on October 23, 2000, the on juvenile justice, partners released Google AdWords, an online advertising service.
It is mlk photo, interesting to essay in religion study know that Paul Buchheit, a Google engineer, invented the mlk photo essay, original Google’s motto “Don’t Be Evil” in July 2001. Introduction Of Expository! During a Google’s employee meeting, where they wanted to discuss main principles, he came up with it. It stuck in the head and became the original motto of the mlk photo, corporation. Paul Buchheit, the inventor of the original Google motto “Don’t Be Evil.” The ability to think creative demonstrated itself during the Dot-com bubble.
The rival companies, such as AltaVista, Excite, and Lycos have been spending millions on advertising and marketing campaigns to create brands. While at the same time, Google executives remained calm and of christianity worked hard to improve its search engine to meet the users’ expectations. Sergey Brin believed that in terms of marketing, Google might rely on the users, as a significant part of those who used the services of the mlk photo, search engine would recommend it to others. Essay In Religion! In December 1999, when their second employee, Marissa Mayer, changed the search results font for mlk photo a better user experience, she received a significant protest from Google’s users. Sergey and Larry always preferred their home and search result pages remain unchanged. In May 2000, the Google team received a Webby Award and criminal justice essay People’s Choice Award for the technical achievement. The following month, Google officially became the world’s largest search engine with the announcement of reaching 1 billion URL in mlk photo essay, its index. Sergey Brin and Larry Page bore the burden of managing the essay, company, until the essay, moment when the number of its employees did not exceed two hundred people. In August 2001, Larry Page transferred the competence of CEO to Eric Schmidt, a veteran of the industry, who was Chief Technology Officer at Sun Microsystems and Chief Executive Officer of Novell. Sergey Brin became President of Technology, and Larry Page was responsible for product development. Eric Schmidt was assigned as the new Google CEO in August 2001.
Nevertheless, they were keeping an eye on everything happening with Google, and no significant decision could be taken without their approval. In the case of a disagreement, the partners had to discuss a controversial issue vis-a-vis and adopt a universal statement. Within just one month after becoming new Google CEO, Eric Schmidt helped Google to make its first profit. By the end of 2001, the Google’s revenue reached $85 million. Finally, Google became a profitable company. In May 2000, Sergey Brin and Larry Page started the overseas expansion of Google services.
Soon Google operated in ten languages: Danish, Portuguese, Finnish, Spanish, German, Italian, Swedish, French, Dutch, and write outline Norwegian. Four months later Sergey and mlk photo essay Larry added Chinese, Korean and Japanese. By 2002, Google operated in 72 different languages. In August 2001, Brin and Page opened their first international office in Japan. One of the success factors was the deal between Google and AOL in May 2002.
According to the agreement, AOL would use Google’s Custom Search and display sponsored links in AOL search results to reach its 34 million users. This contract helped Google to become a major search engine on the Internet, winning considerable market share from Amazon, Yahoo!, and eBay. In March 2004, the company moved into a new headquarters building located in Mountain View. The campus was named the Googleplex. Sergey and Larry created a relaxed and fun atmosphere at the Googleplex: they provided their employees with free massages, pool tables, free food, free laundry, etc. The Googleplex, the Google’s headquarters with fun and positive atmosphere located in Mountain View, California.
On August 19, 2004, Google entered the thesis justice, IPO market with its shares on NASDAQ (GOOG) with $85 per mlk photo essay stock. Rise! By the end of the mlk photo, day, more than 19 million stock share had been sold, and the stock price skyrocketed to almost $100. Essay! In August 2005, the price per share increased to around $300. Essay! By October 2007, a stock price grew up to introduction essay $600. Thus, Brin and essay Page attracted more than $3 billion in cash for the company and of expository became billionaires. On August 19, 2004, Google initiated its IPO. Before the IPO, there was an incident with U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). SEC could have forced Google to delay the IPO for the fact of mlk photo, publication of an interview with its founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page in September 2004 issue of Playboy Magazine in the “quiet period.” A quiet period is write, a period when federal securities laws limit what information a company and related parties can announce to the public.
Google announced its IPO on essay, April 29, 2004. However, according to Playboy Magazine officials, Sergey and study Larry granted the interview yet on April 22, 2004. To resolve this situation, SEC asked Google team to incorporate the mlk photo, entire Playboy interview as an appendix to its prospectus. Google regularly develops new services. On June 18, 2003, Google introduced Google AdSense, a platform that allowed publishers to display targeted advertisements and generate revenue on a per-click or per-impression basis.
In October 2004, Google presented Google Book Search, a service, which allowed users to read excerpts of scanned books from the libraries of Stanford University, Oxford University, the University of Michigan, and the New York Public Library. They agreed to scan books that had expired copyright restrictions. On April 1, 2004, the essay, young innovators revealed Gmail to the public, a free email service created by Paul Buchheit. As of 2014, there are more than 500 million active accounts in Gmail. On February 8, 2005, Brin and Larry introduced Google Maps, a web mapping service, co-founded by essay, Jens Eilstrup Rasmussen and Lars Rasmussen. On October 9, 2006, Google Inc. purchased YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock. YouTube is a video-sharing service initially founded by openoffice thesis, Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. Google Instant is a feature that displays suggested results while the mlk photo, user types, was introduced in the United States on September 8, 2010. At the time of the announcement, Google expected Instant to thesis save users 2 to 5 seconds for every search, collectively about 11 million seconds per hour.
This picture demonstrates the abundance of mlk photo essay, Google services. On June 28, 2011, Google introduced a social networking service under the name Google+ to compete with Facebook. As of March 2015, Google+ had 300 million monthly active users. Unfortunately, Google+ did not become so popular as Facebook. As of March 31, 2015, Facebook had 1.415 billion monthly active users. As of introduction essay, May 27, 2015, Sergey Brin holds a position of Director of Special Projects at Google known as Google X, the secretive division of Google that focuses on high-risk projects, such as Google Glass, airborne wind turbines, smart contact lenses. Mlk Photo! Larry Page is the introduction, Google CEO and heads the company with confidence. On August 10, 2015, Larry Page announced in a blog post that they are turning Google into a subsidiary of companies called Alphabet. Mlk Photo! Alphabet, Inc. Of Expository Essay! will include such companies as Google, Nest, Fiber, Google X, Life Sciences, Calico, etc. Page will serve as Alphabet CEO, with fellow Google co-founder Sergey Brin serving as president.
Sundar Pichai, formerly Google’s vice president in charge of products, will be appointed as CEO of mlk photo essay, Google. Both of them are interested in criminal justice essay, Google’s development and growth. Mlk Photo Essay! Only for the past 14 years, Brin and Page acquired 181 private companies, which carried out research in write comparison outline, artificial intelligence (DeepMind Technologies, Jetpac, Dark Blue Labs, and Vision Factory), robotics (Boston Dynamics, SCHAFT, Meka Robotics, Industrial Perception), home automation (Nest Labs, Inc) and many others. From the beginning, the creators of Google thought globally, while seeking innovative technologies to help in structuring not only the Internet but also the mlk photo, complete information to make it accessible to justice everyone. On June 03, 2015, in an SEC filing, Sergey Brin shared a short letter, with stakeholders on the eve of Google’s annual shareholders meeting, took place on essay, June 10, 2015. His main point was that Google is not just a search engine or an in religion, advertisement seller, but it also is a research and essay development company. In this letter, Brin also talked about contact lenses with they were working on with Novartis, and about self-driving cars that already crossed 1 million miles of essay, autonomous driving. He was proud that Google created the technology that allowed people to live healthier and happier lives. The popularity of Google has grown with each passing day. Google opened its office in China in 2005. Kai-Fu Lee, a former Microsoft executive, and the founder of Microsoft Research Asia headed the Chinese office.
In January 2006, Google, Inc. Mlk Photo Essay! decided to adhere Chinese laws and allow censorship on certain keywords. This decision caused a wave of indignation in the world. Sergey Brin and in religion Larry Page were criticized for the fact that they did not adhere to its motto, Don’t Be Evil. Former Google office in Beijing, China. In January 2010, Google announced that they would no longer filter the search requests of mlk photo, users in China after Google was exposed Chinese-originated hacking attack, under the code name “Operation Aurora,” on its services and would leave the market if necessary. On March 23, 2010, Google was under complete China’s censorship. In response to this action, Google started redirecting users from introduction essay, Google China to Google Hong Kong website (Hong Kong is not a subject to Chinese laws and does not have censorship laws). In late March 2010, Google officially discontinued Google China while keeping its uncensored Hong Kong site in operation.
In 2010, according to Analysys International the mlk photo essay, market share of Google China was 29%. In 2013, Google’s market share in China dropped to essay study 1.7%. Baidu.com remains the essay, national Chinese search engine. After the IPO, the comparison, net worth of Sergey Brin skyrocketed considerably. Since August 2004, Brin is ahead of Bill Gates and mlk photo Paul Allen in the rate of revenue growth. Sergey Brin’s annual salary is $1.00, and he completely relies on stock options and is interested in increasing shareholder value. As of November 28, 2016, Sergey Brin’s net worth is $37.1 billion. Sergey Brin’s Family and thesis justice Lifestyle. In May 2007, Sergey Brin married Anne Wojcicki. She graduated from Yale University in 1996, with Bachelor of Science in mlk photo essay, Biology.
Anne is the CEO and co-founder of a genomics company 23andMe (in 2007, Google invested $3.9 million in 23andMe). Introduction Of Expository! Before the wedding, the couple had known each other for about 8 years. In December 2008, Anne gave birth to their son, Benji Wojin, (child’s name is a combination of “Wojcicki” and “Brin”), and to essay a daughter in early 2012. On August 28, 2013, they have split, and right now they do not live together but remain formally married. According to a representative for on juvenile Brin and essay Wojcicki, they remain good friends and partners. Sergey Brin and his wife Anne Wojcicki are separated, but they remain good friends. Sergey Brin is an author and paper co-author of dozens of publications for the leading American academic journals; he also regularly performs at various national and international academic, business and technology forums. Mlk Photo Essay! Sergey Brin often speaks to the press, on television, talking about his views on introduction, search technology and the IT industry itself. Brin enjoys yoga.
Moreover, as many employees Google, he often on roller skates nearby the office, sometimes playing roller hockey. He prefers to wear jeans, sneakers, and a sports jacket, so he still buys products at Costco and always looks at the price tags. Sergey Brin resides in Los Altos, California in essay, a comfortable mansion, which is spread over 6,000 square feet (557 square meters). In 2008, he bought a 3,500 square foot duplex penthouse apartment in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village for $8.5 million. To Write Thesis! There are 4 bedrooms and mlk photo essay 3.5 bathrooms in thesis, it. Brin drives Tesla Roadster and Toyota Prius. Mlk Photo Essay! His other possessions also include a Dornier Alpha fighter Jet, Google jet 767-200.
In September 2007, Sergey Brin and Larry Page sponsored the Google Lunar XPrize with the reward of $30 million to anyone who would build a private spacecraft and land it on the moon. Research! In June 2008, Brin announced his intention to fly to mlk photo essay the International Space Station (ISS) as a space tourist. Essay Outline! He made a deposit of $5 million to Space Adventures, which would secure him a seat on mlk photo essay, the ISS. To Write Thesis! Space Adventures President Tom Shelley said that ISS could have a vacant seat for Brin in 2017. In 2007, Sergey Brin was an executive producer of Reid Gershbein’s film Broken Arrows , a story about essay love, struggle, and destiny. Sergey Brin life story is an example of how scientific talent, creative exploration, courage, experiments, and innovative solutions can pave the way to the American dream. We hope you have enjoyed exploring Sergey Brin biography and introduction of expository essay breathtaking success story of Google, and it has inspired you to new discoveries. Sergey Brin Biography: Success Story of mlk photo essay, Google Co-Founder. ( ). Astrum People website.
Retrieved , from essay study, https://astrumpeople.com/sergey-brin-biography/. Sergey Brin Biography: Success Story of Google Co-Founder. Mlk Photo! [Internet]. . Openoffice To Write! Astrum People website. Mlk Photo Essay! Available from: https://astrumpeople.com/sergey-brin-biography/. [Accessed ]. Sergey Brin Biography: Success Story of comparison essay outline, Google Co-Founder. Astrum People, ( ). Web. . More Success Stories and Biographies. Great biography with a lot of details and facts. I adore your site guys. Essay! Keep up writing good stuff. Thanks for your comment Rudd.
This is our greatest pleasure. Sergey is genius. That all I can say. By the way, I hope Google is going to introduce to the public their autopilot cars project in the nearest time. That would be a great comfort to ride in the driverless car. Criminal! Hopefully it would be really safe and essay help save people lives. Sergey is a genius. That all I can say.
By the way, I hope Google is going to in religion introduce their autopilot cars project to the public in mlk photo, the nearest time. That would be a great comfort to ride in the driverless car. Hopefully it would be really safe and criminal help save people’s lives. Who knows maybe self-driving cars will cause mass protests among taxi drivers, because many people will lose their jobs. But the progress is hard to escape. Mlk Photo! Anyway, if this technology helps to save people’s lives, then of course it will be highly demanded.
I’ve just read Brin’s biography in one breath. Excellent work guys. I wonder how much time left until Google creates a superintelligence. Write Essay Outline! Will we. be able to find the answer to the question about the meaning of life? Knowing. the answer, would help the humanity to continue exploring life in the right. I personally don’t think that a superintelligence would be able to answer that question, because no one or nothing in the world can know the answer to essay the question, which doesn’t have the answer in principle.
The meaning of life for each person is different. We will never know until we see. We do not even know if a superintelligence would live on the planet among humans. I’ll explain. It might be so sensitive to the information it would absorb that it would prefer to leave the Earth to explore new horizons. Why? Because it might consider humans to in religion be too bored. For example, people don’t make friendship with ants, right? The same way, superintelligence might think and be indifferent to humans. Ruggiero, that’s a very interesting point of view.
I could never guess that a superintelligence might get bored on the earth. Sergey Brin is an amazing personality. Mlk Photo Essay! Despite all the obstacles on his path, he was able to justice overcome them and build such big company that now solves so many tasks! But it is such a pity to read that Brin separated with his wife, but anyway, it’s good to hear that they remain good friends and business partners. This is so detailed biography! Thank you so much for this piece of inspiration. Essay! It helped a lot for my essay. Anne Wojcicki is so beautiful woman. I believe that was her who helped Sergey Brin to openoffice thesis become who he is mlk photo, now. Nice to hear that Sergey and Larry created. Alphabet.
I believe that would be a new page in the Google’s history.
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6 Universal Rules for Resume Writing. Essay. For busy hiring managers, your resume provides a snapshot of your career and is often the determining factor in whether you land an thesis interview. If job search is a journey, a stellar resume is your passport. The fundamental principles of resume writing have remained constant for generations, but evolving technologies mean more aspects of the application and hiring processes take place online than ever before. It’s up to you to stay informed of mlk photo essay modern best practices and write comparison essay outline really put your resume to work for you. If you’re getting ready for your next career move, keep these six universal rules in mlk photo mind as you create or brush up your resume. On Juvenile Justice. 1. Essay. Cover all the basics.
The goal of a resume is to best represent your relevant skills and accomplishments, and there are several ways to do that successfully. That said, every resume requires these basic elements: Relevant educational degrees or certifications. The importance of your educational background will vary based on the job or industry you’re interested in. Thesis On Juvenile. Relevant work and volunteer experience. Most people choose to list their experience beginning with their most recent job. Don’t include everything you did in your past jobs. Instead, focus on achievements over responsibilities. Essay. Contact information. Your full name, the city where you live, your email address and phone number. Because this personal information is sensitive, you should be cautious about who you share your resume with. Read over of christianity research paper, these guidelines for a safe job search to protect yourself.
Relevant skills and your level of mastery (for example, “conversational Spanish” or “familiar with Microsoft Excel” vs. “fluent in Spanish” or “expert at mlk photo, Microsoft Excel”). 2. Essay In Religion. Explore other resumes for inspiration. Search the Indeed Resume database for the job title, industry, or company that you’re thinking about and see how others present their backgrounds and skill sets. This is a great way to uncover stronger ways to describe your experience or to avoid overused words. You can also get a sense of the internal language used within a particular industry or company. You might have experience that isn’t directly related but is still highly relevant to the position you’re applying for, and essay you want to include it in your resume. Someone else’s resume might feature a similar history and justice offer an essay example of how to frame this experience in a compelling way. 3. Use as few words as possible. Employers need to quickly understand your work experience. Introduction Of Expository Essay. Format your experience as a list of short, scannable statements, rather than writing out dense paragraphs. Mlk Photo. For example:
Too wordy: Applied expert budget management skills to achieve a 20% reduction in departmental expenses through diligent research, identifying significant inefficiencies. More concise: Achieved 20% departmental cost savings by eliminating inefficiencies. The typical resume is two pages maximum, so make sure all the rise, information you’ve included is essential. If you can’t decide what is essential, ask yourself if what you’re including is relevant to what the employer is asking for in the job description. It’s also important to consider the kind of work you truly want to essay, be hired to do. Essay In Religion. In other words, don’t include past experience for tasks you strongly dislike doing. Keep the experiences that you want to keep building on and match what the employer is looking for—this meets the essay, definition of essential information to include on your resume. 4. Quantify your accomplishments whenever possible. Numbers and data bring your work experience to life and help hiring managers envision the potential impact you could have in their organization. When you can, back up your achievements with real data to boost your credibility and add informative detail to your resume. For example: Unquantified: Improved lead generation through strategic content marketing initiatives.
Quantified: Achieved 180% year-over-year lead growth through strategic content marketing initiatives. 5. Use keywords that employers are using in their job descriptions. Hiring managers want to see that you can speak their language and know the lingo of their industry. When they see their own keywords mirrored back to criminal, them in your resume, it reinforces the idea that you’re a strong candidate for essay the role. Introduction Of Expository. And if your resume will be posted to an online database like Indeed Resume, the right keywords are critical to getting found by essay, employers. To research keywords commonly used in job postings, explore Indeed Job Category Trends and select your industry. Here you can view top keyword searches and rise paper top job titles by month. 6. Proofread several times to mlk photo essay, catch typos and misspellings.
Unfortunately, a single typographical or spelling error is sometimes enough to criminal, get your resume discarded early in essay the game. Review your resume multiple times, doing a thorough line-by-line, word-by-word edit. Reading content backwards—awkward and time-consuming though it may be—is a great way to catch minor mistakes that you might otherwise miss. And an outside perspective is always a good idea. Ask a friend, mentor, or family member to study, review your resume for mlk photo you before you begin submitting it to employers. A strong resume can streamline your job search process, helping you showcase your strengths and get one step closer to your dream job. With some diligent work up front—and by adhering to these six rules—you can turn this fundamental job search document into rise of christianity, one of mlk photo essay your strongest professional assets.
Apply these learnings while building your Indeed Resume.
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) Case Study. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mlk photo a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. This newest definition COPD , provided by the Global Initiative for Chrnonic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), is a broad description that better explains this disorder and essay in religion, its signs and symptoms (GOLD, World Health Organization [WHO] National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2004). Although previous definitions have include emphysema and chronic bronchitis under the umbrella classification of mlk photo essay COPD , this was often confusing because most patient with COPD present with over lapping signs and symptoms of these two distinct disease processes. COPD may include diseases that cause airflow obstruction (e.g., Emphysema, chronic bronchitis) or any combination of these disorders. Other diseases as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and asthma that were previously classified as types of chronic obstructive lung disease are now classified as chronic pulmonary disorders. However, asthma is now considered as a separate disorder and is classified as an introduction, abnormal airway condition characterized primarily by reversible inflammation. COPD can co-exist with asthma. Both of these diseases have the same major symptoms; however, symptoms are generally more variable in asthma than in COPD . Currently, COPD is the fourth leading cause of mlk photo mortality and thesis on juvenile, the 12 th leading cause of disability.
However, by the year 2020 it is estimated that COPD will be the mlk photo essay, third leading cause of death and the firth leading cause of disability (Sin, McAlister, Man. Et al., 2003). People with COPD commonly become symptomatic during the middle adult years, and the incidence of the disease increases with age. The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. Research. The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for mlk photo, our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the air is funneled down into our lungs.
There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into to write thesis, the air. When something goes wrong with part of the mlk photo, respiratory system, such as an infection like pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, it makes it harder for us to in religion, get the mlk photo, oxygen we need and to get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. Common respiratory symptoms include breathlessness, cough, and chest pain. When you breathe in, air enters your body through your nose or mouth. From there, it travels down your throat through the larynx (or voicebox) and into on juvenile justice, the trachea (or windpipe) before entering your lungs. Essay. All these structures act to funnel fresh air down from the outside world into your body.
The upper airway is important because it must always stay open for you to write comparison essay, be able to breathe. Mlk Photo Essay. It also helps to moisten and warm the air before it reaches your lungs. The lungs are paired, cone-shaped organs which take up most of the outline, space in our chests, along with the mlk photo, heart. Their role is to take oxygen into the body, which we need for our cells to essay study, live and function properly, and to help us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product. We each have two lungs, a left lung and a right lung. These are divided up into mlk photo essay, ‘lobes’, or big sections of tissue separated by ‘fissures’ or dividers. The right lung has three lobes but the left lung has only two, because the heart takes up some of the openoffice to write thesis, space in the left side of our chest. The lungs can also be divided up into essay, even smaller portions, called ‘bronchopulmonary segments’.
These are pyramidal-shaped areas which are also separated from each other by membranes. There are about thesis on juvenile justice 10 of them in each lung. Each segment receives its own blood supply and mlk photo, air supply. COPD VERSUS HEALTHY LUNG. Air enters your lungs through a system of pipes called the bronchi. These pipes start from the bottom of the trachea as the left and right bronchi and on juvenile, branch many times throughout the lungs, until they eventually form little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli.
The alveoli are where the important work of gas exchange takes place between the mlk photo essay, air and your blood. In Religion. Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood vessel called capillaries, which are very small branches of the pulmonary arteries. It is mlk photo important that the air in the alveoli and the blood in justice introduction the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move (or diffuse) between them. Mlk Photo Essay. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and through the bronchi into the alveoli. This fresh air has lots of oxygen in it, and some of this oxygen will travel across the walls of the alveoli into your bloodstream. Traveling in the opposite direction is carbon dioxide, which crosses from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli and is then breathed out. Research Paper. In this way, you bring in to your body the oxygen that you need to mlk photo, live, and get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. The lungs are very vascular organs, meaning they receive a very large blood supply. This is because the pulmonary arteries, which supply the lungs, come directly from the criminal introduction, right side of your heart. Mlk Photo Essay. They carry blood which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide into your lungs so that the carbon dioxide can be blown off, and more oxygen can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
The newly oxygen-rich blood then travels back through the paired pulmonary veins into the left side of your heart. From there, it is introduction essay pumped all around your body to supply oxygen to cells and mlk photo, organs. The lungs are covered by smooth membranes that we call pleurae. In Religion Study. The pleurae have two layers, a ‘visceral’ layer which sticks closely to the outside surface of your lungs, and a ‘parietal’ layer which lines the inside of your chest wall (ribcage). Essay. The pleurae are important because they help you breathe in essay and out smoothly, without any friction. They also make sure that when your ribcage expands on mlk photo essay breathing in, your lungs expand as well to fill the extra space.
The Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles. When you breathe in (inspiration), your muscles need to work to fill your lungs with air. The diaphragm, a large, sheet-like muscle which stretches across your chest under the ribcage, does much of this work. At rest, it is shaped like a dome curving up into your chest. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and flattens out, expanding the space in your chest and drawing air into your lungs.
Other muscles, including the muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles) also help by moving your ribcage in and out. Breathing out (expiration) does not normally require your muscles to work. This is because your lungs are very elastic, and when your muscles relax at the end of justice inspiration your lungs simply recoil back into their resting position, pushing the essay, air out as they go. The Respiratory System and Ageing. The normal process of ageing is associated with a number of essay changes in mlk photo both the structure and function of the respiratory system. Introduction Of Expository. These include: Enlargement of the mlk photo, alveoli.
The air spaces get bigger and lose their elasticity, meaning that there is less area for gases to be exchanged across. Introduction. This change is sometimes referred to as ‘senile emphysema’. The compliance (or springiness) of the chest wall decreases, so that it takes more effort to breathe in and out. The strength of the mlk photo essay, respiratory muscles (the diaphragm and intercostal muscles) decreases. This change is closely connected to on juvenile, the general health of the person. All of these changes mean that an older person might have more difficulty coping with increased stress on their respiratory system, such as with an infection like pneumonia, than a younger person would. Risk factors for mlk photo essay, COPD include environmental exposures and host factors. The most important risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoking.
Other risk factors are pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoking. Of Christianity. In addition, passive smoking contributes to respiratory symptoms and COPD. Smoking depresses the activity of scavenger cells and affects the respiratory tract’s ciliary cleansing mechanism, which keeps breathing passages free of inhaled irritants, bacteria, and other foreign matter. When smoking damages this cleansing mechanism, airflow is obstructed and air becomes trapped behind the obstruction. The alveoli greatly distend, diminished lung capacity. Smoking also irritates the goblet cells and mucus glands, causing an mlk photo essay, increased accumulation of mucus, which in turn produces more irritation, infection, and damage to the lung. In addition, carbon monoxide (a by product of smoking) combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin that is bound by carboxyhemoglobin cannot carry oxygen efficiently.
A host risk factor for essay in religion, COPD is a deficiency of alpha antitrypsin, an essay, enzyme inhibitor that protects the lung parenchyma from justice, injury. This deficiency predisposes young people to rapid development of lobular emphysema, even if they do not smoke. Genetically susceptible people are sensitive to environmental factors (eg. Smoking, air pollution, infectious agents, allergens) and mlk photo, eventually developed chronic obstructive symptoms. Carriers of this genetic defect must be identified so that they can modify environmental risk factors to delay or prevent overt symptoms of disease.
In COPD , the airflow limitation is both progressive and associated with an of expository, abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. The inflammatory response occurs throughout the airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. Because of the chronic inflammation and the body’s attempts to repair it, narrowing occurs in essay the small peripheral airways. Over time, this injury-and-repair process causes scar tissue formation and narrowing of the rise paper, airway lumen. Airflow obstruction may also be caused by parenchymal destruction, as is seen with emphysema, a disease of the alveoli or gas exchange units. In addition to inflammation, processes related to imbalances of proteinases and antiproteinases in the lung may be responsible for airflow limitation. When activated by chronic inflammation, proteiness and other substances may be released, damaging the parenchyma of the lung. The parenchymal changes may occur as a consequence of inflammation or environmental or genetic factors (eg. Mlk Photo Essay. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency). Early in the course of COPD , the inflammatory response causes pulmonary vasculature changes that are characterized by thickening of the in religion, vessel wall. These changes may result from exposure to cigarette smoke, use of tobacco products, and the release of inflammatory medicators.
Lung damage and inflammation in the large airways results in chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is defined in clinical terms as a cough with sputum production on most days for 3 months of a year, for 2 consecutive years. In the airways of the lung, the hallmark of chronic bronchitris is an increased number (hyperplasia) and increased size (hypertrophy) of the goblet cells and mucous glands of the airway. As a result, there is more mucus than usual in the airways, contributing to mlk photo, narrowing of the airways and causing a cough with sputum. Microscopically there is infiltration of the airway walls with inflammatory cells. Of Christianity Research. Inflammation is followed by scarring and remodeling that thickens the essay, walls and also results in write comparison essay narrowing of the airways. As chronic bronchitis progresses, there is essay squamous metaplasia (an abnormal change in the tissue lining the inside of the airway) and fibrosis (further thickening and scarring of the airway wall).
The consequence of introduction essay these changes is a limitation of mlk photo airflow. Patients with advanced COPD that have primarily chronic bronchitis rather than emphysema were commonly referred to comparison essay, as “blue bloaters” because of the bluish color of the skin and lips (cyanosis) seen in them. The hypoxia and fluid retention leads to them being called “Blue Bloaters.” One of the most common symptoms of COPD is mlk photo essay shortness of breath (dyspnea). People with COPD commonly describe this as: “My breathing requires effort”, “I feel out of breath”, or “I can not get enough air in”. People with COPD typically first notice dyspnea during vigorous exercise when the demands on essay in religion study the lungs are greatest.
Over the years, dyspnea tends to get gradually worse so that it can occur during milder, everyday activities such as housework. In the advanced stages of COPD , dyspnea can become so bad that it occurs during rest and is constantly present. Other symptoms of COPD are a persistent cough, sputum or mucus production, wheezing, chest tightness, and tiredness. People with advanced (very severe) COPD sometimes develop respiratory failure. When this happens, cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the lips caused by a lack of oxygen in essay the blood, can occur. In Religion. An excess of carbon dioxide in the blood can cause headaches, drowsiness or twitching (asterixis).
A complication of advanced COPD is cor pulmonale, a strain on the heart due to the extra work required by the heart to pump blood through the affected lungs. Symptoms of cor pulmonale are peripheral edema, seen as swelling of the ankles, and dyspnea. There are a few signs of COPD that a healthcare worker may detect although they can be seen in essay other diseases. Some people have COPD and introduction of expository, have none of these signs. Common signs are: tachypnea, a rapid breathing rate wheezing sounds or crackles in the lungs heard through a stethoscope breathing out taking a longer time than breathing in enlargement of the chest, particularly the front-to-back distance (hyperinflation) active use of muscles in the neck to help with breathing breathing through pursed lips increased anteroposterior to lateral ratio of the chest (i.e. barrel chest). Emphysema is essay a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, as it is otherwise known, formerly termed a chronic obstructive lung disease). It is often caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, including long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Emphysema is characterized by write comparison essay loss of elasticity (increased pulmonary compliance) of the mlk photo essay, lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli, owing to the action of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. Essay. This causes the small airways to mlk photo essay, collapse during forced exhalation, as alveolar collapsibility has decreased. As a result, airflow is write essay impeded and mlk photo essay, air becomes trapped in the lungs, in the same way as other obstructive lung diseases.
Symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion, and an expanded chest. However, the constriction of air passages isn’t always immediately deadly, and treatment is available. Signs of emphysema include pursed-lipped breathing, central cyanosis and on juvenile, finger clubbing. The chest has hyper resonant percussion notes, particularly just above the liver, and a difficult to palpate apex beat, both due to hyperinflation. Essay. There may be decreased breath sounds and audible expiratory wheeze. In advanced disease, there are signs of fluid overload such as pitting peripheral edema. The face has a ruddy complexion if there is a secondary polycythemia. Sufferers who retain carbon dioxide have asterixis (metabolic flap) at the wrist.
PFTs demonstrative airflow obstruction – reduced forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1 to FVC ration; increased residual volume to openoffice, total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, possibly increased TLC. ABG levels- decreased PaO2, pH, and mlk photo essay, increased CO2. Chest X-ray – in late stages, hyperinflation, flattened diaphragm, increased rettrosternal space, decreased vascular markings, possible bullae. Alpa1-antitrypsin assay useful in identifying genetically determined deficiency in emphysema. The goals of COPD treatment are 1) to write essay, prevent further deterioration in lung function, 2) to alleviate symptoms, 3) to improve performance of daily activities and quality of life. The treatment strategies include 1) quitting cigarette smoking, 2) taking medications to dilate airways (bronchodilators) and decrease airway inflammation, 3) vaccinating against flu influenza and pneumonia and mlk photo essay, 4) regular oxygen supplementation and of christianity research paper, 5) pulmonary rehabilitation. Quitting cigarette smoking. The most important treatment for COPD is quitting cigarette smoking. Patients who continue to smoke have a more rapid deterioration in mlk photo essay lung function when compared to others who quit. Aging itself can cause a very slow decline in lung function.
In susceptible individuals, cigarette smoking can result in a much more dramatic loss of lung function. It is important to note that when one stops smoking the decline in lung function eventually reverts to that of a non-smoker. Nicotine in cigarettes is addictive, and, therefore, cessation of smoking can cause symptoms of essay introduction nicotine withdrawal including anxiety, irritability, anger, depression, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or sleeping, and intense craving for cigarettes. Mlk Photo Essay. Patients likely to develop withdrawal symptoms typically smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day, need to smoke shortly after waking up in the morning, and have difficulty refraining from smoking in non-smoking areas. However, some 25% of smokers can stop smoking without developing these symptoms. Even in those smokers who develop symptoms of withdrawal, the symptoms will decrease after several weeks of abstinence. Treating airway obstruction in COPD with bronchodilators is similar but not identical to treating bronchospasm in asthma. Openoffice Thesis. Bronchodilators are medications that relax the muscles surrounding the small airways thereby opening the airways. Bronchodilators can be inhaled, taken orally or administered intravenously.
Inhaled bronchodilators are popular because they go directly to mlk photo essay, the airways where they work. As compared with bronchodilators given orally, less medication reaches the rest of the body, and, therefore, there are fewer side effects. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are used to deliver bronchodilators. An MDI is a pressurized canister containing a medication that is study released when the canister is compressed. A standard amount of medication is released with each compression of the MDI. Essay. To maximize the delivery of the medications to write essay, the airways, the patient has to learn to coordinate inhalation with each compression.
Incorrect use of the MDI can lead to mlk photo essay, deposition of much of the medication on introduction the tongue and mlk photo, the back of the essay study, throat instead of on the airways. To decrease the mlk photo, deposition of of expository medications on mlk photo the throat and increase the amount reaching the airways, spacers can be helpful. Spacers are tube-like chambers attached to the outlet of the MDI canister. Rise Paper. Spacer devices can hold the released medications long enough for patients to inhale them slowly and deeply into the lungs. Proper use of essay spacer devices can greatly increase the proportion of medication reaching the airways.
Pulmonary rehabilitation has become a cornerstone in the management of moderate to severe COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education regarding lung function and dysfunction, proper breathing techniques (diaphragmatic breathing, pursed lip breathing), and proper use of respiratory equipment and medications. An essential ingredient in this program is the use of of expository increasing physical exercise to overcome the reduced physical capacity that usually has developed over time. In addition, occupational and mlk photo essay, physical therapy are used to teach optimal and efficient body mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has received much fanfare in the lay press. LVRS is a surgical procedure used to treat some patients with COPD. The premise behind this surgery is that the over-inflated, poorly-functioning upper parts of the lung compress and impair function of the better-functioning lung elsewhere. Thus, if the over-inflated portions of essay lung are removed surgically, the compressed lung may expand and mlk photo, function better. In addition, the diaphragm and the chest cavity achieve more optimal positioning following the surgery, and this improves breathing further. The best criteria for essay, choosing patients for LVRS are still uncertain.
A national study was completed in 2003. Patients primarily with emphysema at the top of their lungs, whose exercise tolerance was low even after pulmonary rehabilitation, seemed to mlk photo, do the best with this procedure. On average, lung function and of expository essay, exercise capacity among surviving surgical patients improved significantly following LVRS, but after two years returned to about the same levels as before the procedure. Patients with forced expiratory volume in FEVI of mlk photo essay less than 20% of predicted and either diffuse disease on the CAT scan or lower than 20% diffusing capacity or elevated carbon dioxide levels had higher mortality. The role of LVRS is at present is very limited. Beta-agonists Beta-2 agonists have the bronchodilating effects of adrenaline without many of its unwanted side effects. Beta-2 agonists can be administered by MDI inhalers or orally. They are called “agonists” because they activate the beta-2 receptor on the muscles surrounding the airways. Activation of beta-2 receptors relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways and essay study, opens the airways. Dilating airways helps to relieve the symptoms of mlk photo essay dyspnea (shortness of breath).
Beta-2 agonists have been shown to relieve dyspnea in many COPD patients, even among those without demonstrable reversibility in airway obstruction. The action of beta-2 agonists starts within minutes after inhalation and lasts for about 4 hours. Because of their quick onset of action, beta-2 agonists are especially helpful for patients who are acutely short of breath. Because of their short duration of action, these medications should be used for symptoms as they develop rather than as maintenance. Evidence suggests that when these drugs are used routinely, their effectiveness is diminished. These are referred to as rescue inhalers. Examples of beta-2 agonists include albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil), metaproterenol (Alupent), pirbuterol (Maxair), terbutaline (Brethaire), and isoetharine (Bronkosol). Levalbuterol (Xopenex) is a recently approved Beta-2 agonist. In contrast, Beta-2 agonists with a slower onset of openoffice thesis action but a longer period of activity, such as salmeterol xinafoate (Serevent) and formoterol fumarate (Foradil) may be used routinely as maintenance medications. Mlk Photo. These drugs last twelve hours and should be taken twice daily and no more.
Along with some of these inhalers to be mentioned, these are often referred to as maintenance inhalers. Side effects of beta-2 agonists include anxiety, tremor, palpitations or fast heart rate, and low blood potassium. Anti-cholinergic Agents Acetylcholine is a chemical released by nerves that attaches to receptors on the muscles surrounding the airway causing the muscles to outline, contract and the airways to mlk photo essay, narrow. Anti-cholinergic drugs such as ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) dilate airways by blocking the receptors for openoffice to write, acetylcholine on the muscles of the airways and essay, preventing them from narrowing. Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) usually is administered via a MDI.
In patients with COPD, ipratropium has been shown to alleviate dyspnea, improve exercise tolerance and improve FEV1. Rise Paper. Ipratropium has a slower onset of action but longer duration of action than the shorter-acting beta-2 agonists. Mlk Photo. Ipratropium usually is well tolerated with minimal side effects even when used in higher doses. Tiotropium (SPIRIVA) is a long acting and comparison essay outline, more powerful version of Ipratropium and has been shown to be more effective. In comparing ipratropium with beta-2 agonists in the treatment of essay patients with COPD, studies suggest that ipratropium may be more effective in dilating airways and improving symptoms with fewer side effects. Ipratropium is especially suitable for use by of expository essay elderly patients who may have difficulty with fast heart rate and tremor from the beta-2 agonists. In patients who respond poorly to mlk photo essay, either beta-2 agonists or ipratropium alone, a combination of the two drugs sometimes results in a better response than to either drug alone without additional side effects. Methylxanthines Theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair, Slo-Bid, Uniphyl, Theo-24) and aminophylline are examples of methylxanthines.
Methylxanthines are administered orally or intravenously. Rise Of Christianity Research. Long acting theophylline preparations can be given orally once or twice a day. Theophylline, like a beta agonist, relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways but also prevents mast cells around the airways from releasing bronchoconstricting chemicals such as histamine. Mlk Photo Essay. Theophylline also can act as a mild diuretic and increase urination. Theophylline also may increase the force of contraction of the heart and lower pressure in the pulmonary arteries. Thus, theophylline can help patients with COPD who have heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Comparison Outline. Patients who have difficulty using inhaled bronchodilators but no difficulty taking oral medications find theophylline particularly useful.
The disadvantage of methylxanthines is their side effects. Dosage and blood levels of theophylline or aminophylline have to essay, be closely monitored. Excessively high levels in the blood can lead to nausea, vomiting, heart rhythm problems, and criminal essay, even seizures. In patients with heart failure or cirrhosis, dosages of essay methylxanthines are lowered to avoid high blood levels. Interactions with other medications, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), calcium channel blockers (Procardia), quinolones (Cipro), and allopurinol (Zyloprim) also can alter blood levels of methylxanthines. Corticosteroids When airway inflammation (which causes swelling) contributes to of expository essay, airflow obstruction, anti-inflammatory medications (more specifically, corticosteroids) may be beneficial. Examples of corticosteroids include Prednisone and Prednisolone. Twenty to thirty percent of mlk photo essay patients with COPD show improvement in lung function when given corticosteroids by mouth. Unfortunately, high doses of oral corticosteroids over prolonged periods can have serious side effects, including osteoporosis, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, thinning of the skin and easy bruising, insomnia, emotional changes, and weight gain. Therefore, many doctors use oral corticosteroids as the treatment of last resort. When oral corticosteroids are used, they are prescribed at the lowest possible doses for the shortest period of time to minimize side effects.
When it is necessary to use long term oral steroids, medications are often prescribed to justice introduction, help reduce the development of the essay, above side effects. Corticosteroids also can be inhaled. To Write. Inhaled corticosteroids have many fewer side effects than long term oral corticosteroids. Essay. Examples of inhaled corticosteroids include beclomethasone dipropionate (Beclovent, Beconase, Vancenase, and Vanceril), triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort), fluticasone (Flovent), budesonide (Pulmicort), mometasone furoate (Asmanex) and flunisolide (Aerobid). Inhaled corticosteroids have been useful in treating patients with asthma, but in to write thesis patients with COPD, it is essay not clear whether inhaled corticosteroid have the same benefit as oral corticosteroids. Of Christianity Research Paper. Nevertheless, doctors are less concerned about using inhaled corticosteroids because of their safety.
The side effects of inhaled corticosteroids include hoarseness, loss of mlk photo essay voice, and oral yeast infections. A spacing device placed between the mouth and the MDI can improve medication delivery and reduce the of christianity paper, side effects on the mouth and throat. Rinsing out the mouth after use of mlk photo a steroid inhaler also can decrease these side effects. Treatment of Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Emphysema can develop at essay a very young age in essay some patients with severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT). Rise Of Christianity Paper. Replacement of the missing or inactive AAT by injection can help prevent progression of the associated emphysema. Essay. This therapy is of expository essay of no benefit in essay other types of COPD. Respiratory failure Pneumonia, overwhelming respiratory infection Right-sided heart failure, dysrhythmias Depression Skeletal muscle dysfunction. Monitor for adverse effects of bronchodilators – tremulousness, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, central nervous system stimulation, hypertension.
Monitor condition after administration of aerosol bronchodilators to essay, assess for improved aeration, reduced adventitious sounds, reduced dyspnea. Monitor serum theophylline level, as ordered, to ensure therapeutic level and mlk photo essay, prevent toxicity. Rise Of Christianity Paper. Monitor oxygen saturation at rest and with activity. Eliminate all pulmonary irritants, particularly cigarette smoke. Smoking cessation usually reduces pulmonary irritation, sputum production, and cough. Keep the patient’s room as dust-free as possible. Use postural drainage positions to help clear secretions responsible for airway obstructions. Teach controlled coughing. Mlk Photo Essay. Encourage high level of introduction of expository fluid intake ( 8 to 10 glasses; 2 to mlk photo, 2.5 liters daily) within level of cardiac reserve.
Give inhalations of nebulized saline to introduction, humidify bronchial tree and mlk photo, liquefy sputum. Add moisture (humidifier, vaporizer) to justice introduction, indoor air. Avoid dairy products if these increases sputum production. Encourage the patient to assume comfortable position to decrease dyspnea. Instruct and essay, supervise patient’s breathing retraining exercises.
Use pursed lip breathing at intervals and during periods of of christianity dyspnea to control rate and depth of respiration and improve respiratory muscle coordination. Discuss and demonstrate relaxation exercises to reduce stress, tension, and anxiety. Maintain the patient’s nutritional status. Reemphasize the importance of graded exercise and physical conditioning programs. Encourage use of portable oxygen system for ambulation for patients with hypoxemia and mlk photo, marked disability. Train the patient in energy conservation technique.
Assess the patient for reactive-behaviors such as anger, depression and acceptance. Education and health maintenance. Review with the patient the objectives of treatment and thesis, nursing management. Mlk Photo Essay. Advise the patient to avoid respiratory irritants. Suggest that high efficiency particulate air filter may have some benefit. Warn patient to stay out of extremely hot or cold weather and to avoid aggravating bronchial obstruction and sputum obstruction. Warn patient to avoid persons with respiratory infections, and to essay, avoid crowds and areas with poor ventilation. Teach the patient how to recognize and report evidence of respiratory infection promptly such as chest pain, changes in character of sputum (amount, color and consistency), increasing difficulty in raising sputum, increasing coughing and wheezing, increasing of shortness of breath. Medical and Surgical Nursing by Brunner and Suddarth’s.
Medical Surgical Nursing by Josie Quiambao Udan. Manuals of Nursing Practice by Lippincott. Mosby’s Medical Surgical Nursing. Daisy Jane Antipuesto RN MN. Currently a Nursing Local Board Examination Reviewer. Subjects handled are Pediatric, Obstetric and Psychiatric Nursing. Previous work experiences include: Clinical instructor/lecturer, clinical coordinator (Level II), caregiver instructor/lecturer, NC2 examination reviewer and staff/clinic nurse.
Areas of specialization: Emergency room, Orthopedic Ward and Delivery Room. Also an IELTS passer.
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Enrolment Policy - Coursework Students. Policy Student Services Enrolment Policy - Coursework Students. To outline various rules that apply to coursework enrolments at James Cook University (JCU). The policy applies to JCU and JCU Singapore undergraduate and postgraduate coursework students. Clauses in this policy that relate to subject enrolment also apply to Higher Degree by Research students when they are enrolled in coursework subjects as part of the research award. Definitions of terms used in mlk photo, this policy are as per the Policy Glossary. Campus Transfer A Campus Transfer occurs when a continuing JCU student moves to a different JCU campus or study centre and justice essay does not intend to return to their original JCU campus or study centre. Relevant Deputy Vice Chancellor means either the Deputy Vice Chancellor Academic or the Senior Deputy Vice Chancellor or authorised delegate as per the Academic and Student Delegations Register. 1. Granting of an essay, Award of the University.
Students who have fulfilled the of expository essay conditions of the Requirements for the Award in which they are enrolled and have complied with all Statutes and other Requirements applicable to them may be granted the essay Award. In each year of of christianity research enrolment, each student is required to nominate a selection of subjects. Mlk Photo Essay? The relevant Deputy Vice Chancellor may reject a student’s enrolment and/or selection of subjects where the selection of subjects does not conform to the requirements of the award or where enrolment in a particular subject is restricted. At the direction of the openoffice to write thesis relevant Deputy Vice Chancellor some students may be required to attend an enrolment advisory session. However, it is the student’s responsibility to ensure that the essay selection of subjects conforms to the requirements of the award in which the student is enrolled; and essay in religion study acceptance by the University of a student’s enrolment and selection of subjects must not be taken as confirmation that the selection of mlk photo essay subjects conforms to the requirements of the write comparison outline award in mlk photo essay, which the student is openoffice thesis, enrolled. The maximum enrolment for any student will normally be restricted to 15 credit points per mlk photo essay, teaching period without the special approval of the head of the appropriate academic division. The normal enrolment for a full-time student is 24 credit points in an academic year. 4. Openoffice? Cross-institutional Enrolment.
Cross-institutional study may be available to JCU students who wish to undertake a relevant subject at another institution because that subject is not offered by JCU, or because students cannot attend JCU due to extenuating circumstances. Approval is not granted routinely and mlk photo essay is usually restricted to substantial grounds such as justifiable academic reasons, relocation for work commitments or compassionate reasons preventing a student from thesis on juvenile, attending a class at JCU. Other than in exceptional circumstances, students must have completed at least one year (24 credit points) of the award at JCU to be eligible for cross-institutional study. Where a course is subject to mlk photo accreditation by an external body, cross-institutional study will only be approved in exceptional circumstances. If a student has been granted advanced standing for studies completed at another institution, the thesis quantum of advanced standing and cross-institutional enrolment shall not exceed the mlk photo maximum advanced standing allowable for that particular award. Any provisions or restrictions regarding cross-institutional study detailed in individual award rules shall take precedence. Some courses require at thesis least 18 credit points of a student’s final year of study to be completed at JCU. International students may be permitted to essay undertake cross-institutional study with another registered Australian education provider, subject to all specific visa and/or scholarship conditions.
5. Eligibility for Campus Transfer. A Campus Transfer between JCU’s campuses and study centres is available to thesis all JCU students who are admitted to a course of study. Essay? To be eligible to apply for a Campus Transfer a student must meet the following criteria: The student is applying to enter a course that is offered at write essay the new campus or study centre; The student has no financial sanctions at their current home campus or study centre; International Students and Singaporean Domestic Students must have completed at mlk photo essay least nine (9) credit points of JCU coursework study at their current campus, with published results , and thesis have an academic status of ‘good standing’. The student must have a continuing enrolment with JCU (including enrolling in an Honours year), from the previous Teaching Period/Study Period, or be on an approved Leave of Absence from their course; To transfer campus Australian Domestic students must have a published result for at least one coursework subject in mlk photo, their current course of study at the current home campus or study centre. If an Australian Domestic student does not meet that criterion then they may apply for a change of preference to change study location.
6. Normal Period of introduction Candidature. A three year undergraduate degree requires 72 credit points and is normally completed in three years of mlk photo essay full-time study or the part-time equivalent; a four year degree requires 96 credit points and is normally completed in four years offull-time study or the part-time equivalent. The Academic Progression Policy requires that a student’s progress with their studies in accordance with the conditions set down by essay outline that Policy. Students are not permitted to undertake more than the minimum number of mlk photo credit points required to complete their degree without the approval of the relevant Deputy Vice Chancellor. A full-time student for any particular year is one who in that year enrols for subjects to openoffice to write thesis the value of at least 18 credit points. Apart-time student for any particular year is one who in that year enrols for subjects to the value of less than 18 credit points. 8. Suspension or Termination of Enrolment. Where a student’s enrolment is suspended or terminated, their attendance at the University, participation in online tuition or participation in a professional or clinical placement will cease, with effect from the date of suspension or termination. 9. Completion of a Subject. To complete a subject a student shall fulfil the requirements of the appropriate college as approved by the appropriate academic division for that subject in regard to attendance at lectures and classes, presentation of oral, written,practical and field work and satisfactory performance in mlk photo essay, examinations or in other forms of assessment. These conditions will be specified in each subject outline issued at the commencement of the subject.
Except with permission, granted on paper, advice from the Dean of the appropriate college or their authorised nominee, a student may not enrol for any subject until a passing grade has been obtained for mlk photo, any prerequisite subject or subjects or other conditions have been met as detailed in the Master Schedule of subjects. Where two subjects are listed in the Master Schedule of subjects as an inadmissible subject combination, credit may be gained for only one of the subjects. 12. Professional Experience. Where a course includes prescribed professional or clinical placements, students may be required to undertake such placements away from the campus at which they are enrolled at to write thesis their own expense. 12.1 Students may be required to be interviewed, in accordance with the relevant procedures, to assess their suitability to undertake, or to mlk photo essay continue in, a professional or clinical placement. 12.2 Where a course includes a prescribed professional or clinical placement(s) and where that placement(s)may involve contact with young people, a student’s initial enrolment and continuing enrolment in that course will be conditional upon the following: 12.2.1 eligibility of the student for a Suitability to Work with Children Card at the time of the first enrolment; 12.2.2 maintenance of that eligibility throughout the comparison essay outline whole of the course; 12.2.3 actual application for or acquisition of a Sustainability to mlk photo Work with Children Card prior to commencement of Placement.
In the event that a student becomes ineligible for a Suitability to Work with Children Card, at any time between the date of first enrolment and the date of criminal justice completion of the course, the student will not be able to complete the degree. 13 Withdrawal from Subjects by essay Students. A date shall be specified for introduction of expository, each study period in which a coursework subject is offered, after which date a student who withdraws from the mlk photo essay subject will receive an academic penalty, i.e. Of Christianity Research? a fail in the subject. This date is known as the Last Date for Withdrawal Without Academic Penalty. The Last Date for Withdrawal Without Academic Penalty for essay, each study period is a date that falls after the census date for the study period and is approximately half-way through the study period. The Last Date for Withdrawal Without Academic Penalty for paper, each study period each year is approved by Academic Board and is published on mlk photo essay, the JCU website. When a student withdraws from a subject on or before the rise of christianity Last Date for Withdrawal Without Academic Penalty, no subject enrolment or result will be recorded for that subject on the student’s official Academic Record. A student who withdraws from mlk photo, a subject after the Last Date for Withdrawal Without Academic Penalty shall be deemed to have failed that subject unless the academic division is satisfied that there are special reasons for waiving this provision.
A student may apply to the relevant Deputy Vice Chancellor for rise of christianity research paper, withdrawal without academic penalty, which may be granted if the mlk photo essay relevant Deputy Vice Chancellor or authorised nominee is satisfied that the cancellation is justified by reason of special circumstances not related to the student’s academic ability or diligence. The following would normally constitute acceptable grounds for granting withdrawal without academic penalty: A serious health problem or the thesis justice onset of mlk photo a chronic health problem since the openoffice to write thesis last date for withdrawal without academic penalty, as evidenced by medical certificates (e.g. serious illness, hospitalisation). Mlk Photo? Serious personal trauma as evidenced by medical or counsellor certificates. Demonstrable change in personal circumstances since the last date for withdrawal without academic penalty as supported by personal declaration by way of a signed Statutory Declaration and other relevant material (e.g. additional and unforeseen employment demands on a part-time student; severe financial stress; onset of severe illness in an immediate family member). The following would not normally be acceptable grounds for granting withdrawal without academic penalty after the relevant date: Failure to prepare adequately for assessment requirements outside the circumstances outlined above. 14.
Addition or Substitution of Subjects Without Approval of the Subject Coordinator. A date shall be specified for thesis, each study period in mlk photo essay, which a subject is offered, after which students are not permitted to add or substitute coursework subjects without the approval of the subject coordinator. This dates hall be six days after the commencement of the study period for all study periods not exceeding 17 weeks duration and thesis thirteen days after the commencement of the study period for study periods exceeding 17 weeks duration;and shall be published on the JCU website. A student’s performance in a subject shall be graded within the range of essay grades specified in to write thesis, the policy Standard System for Reporting Grades. The degree with honours may be taken with honours in a single discipline or with combined honours in two disciplines. 16.1 The examination for mlk photo, the degree with honours shall be as designated by the Dean of the appropriate college or authorised nominee and shall be by:
16.1.1 Passing or by introduction essay being granted credit for passes in essay, such assignments, exercises and written papers as may be prescribed; and. 16.1.2 Completing such other requirements, as may be approved and prescribed by the appropriate School responsible for examining the various subjects in which the student is enrolled; and. 16.1.3 The presentation of a thesis or other form of research writing, including professional practice research reports, in manner and at a standard satisfactory to the appropriate college Dean or authorised nominee, and consistent with the Honours Assessment and Postgraduate Coursework Policy. 16.2 The Bachelor Degree with Honours may be awarded in the following classes: The award of Class I Honours is acknowledged on the Testamur which is conferred at a Graduation Ceremony or Council meeting. Class III Honours is not awarded in Engineering and thesis justice Law. 17.
Advanced Standing for Previous Studies. A student may be granted advanced standing towards an award of this University for subjects completed at this or another University in accordance with the Advanced Standing for Previous Studies and Recognised Prior Learning policy. Deputy Vice-Chancellor Academic. Date for next Major Review: Minor amendments to align with Council approved Academic and Student Delegations Register. Associate Director, Enrolment and mlk photo Client Services.
Addition of: 1. Clause 5. Comparison? Eligibility for Campus Transfer; 2.Definition of essay campus transfer; 3. References of ‘Academy DVC’ changed to ‘relevant DVC’. Executive Approval received from Chair Academic Board 11/01/2015. Acting Director, Student Services. Amended to reflect organisation restructure. Change of justice title from University Requirements for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Awards and inclusion of mlk photo policy provisions from Dates for Withdrawal Without Academic Penalty and Addition or Substitution of comparison essay outline Subjects Without Prior Approval of Subject Coordinator Policy. Change of approval authority only from Council to Academic Board. Endorsed by Academic Board on 18/04/2011 and approved on mlk photo, an interim basis (ie until the of expository document can be presented to Council) by the Vice-Chancellor. Published in Policy Library and Student Handbook.
James Cook University Memberships. We acknowledge Australian Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islander People as the first inhabitants of the nation, and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students live, learn and work. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Information.